Category Archives: Higher Education

The Case for a Black & Latino Male Success Initiative at the University of Kentucky

The University System of Georgia’s (USG) 2002 study of factors related to the challenges its campuses faced with the enrollment retention, cialis and graduation of African American male students revealed that: (a) African American males students felt isolated and alienated on their campuses; (b)  most schools had failed to engage African American males students, viagra both inside and outside of classrooms; and (c) African-American male students longed for the ability to talk to faculty, staff, and peers on their campuses that could related to their racial and gender experiences. Based on those findings the USG invested in pilot programs targeting African American male students at the middle school, high school, and higher education levels across the state, with the explicit goals of increasing the recruitment, retention, and graduation rates of African-American male students within the system. USG’s Initiative is a testament to the resolve of its leaders to intentionally and strategically do something about the troubling statistics associated with African American male students’ experiences on its campuses.

The commonwealth of Kentucky is different than Georgia in a few significant ways. First, Georgia is a much larger and much more racially diverse state than Kentucky. At the time of the 2010 U.S. Census, Georgia boasted a state population of 9,687,653 residents, which was an 18% increase over the state’s population at the 2000 U.S. Census. In 2010, 59.7% of Georgia’s residents identified themselves as White, 30.5% as Black or African American, 0.3% as American Indian and Alaskan Native, 3.2% as Asian, 0.1% as Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander, 4% as some other race, 2.1% as two or more races, and 8.8% as Hispanic or Latino of any race. Kentucky, however, is only about half the size of Georgia in terms of population and is significantly less diverse. In 2010, Kentucky had a state population of 4,339,367 residents. Kentucky is also one of the Whitest states in the U.S. In 2010, 86.3% of residents identified themselves as White, 7.8% as Black or African American, 1.1% as Asian, 0.2% as American Indian and Alaskan Native, 0.1% as Pacific Islander, and 3.1% as Hispanic or Latino of any race.

Given the differences in number of state residents and the differences in racial/ethnic composition of the states, one would expect to see differences in student enrollment patterns between higher education institutions in Georgia and Kentucky, and those differences are in fact there. In raw numbers, UK enrolls fewer male students of color than comparable institutions in the University System of Georgia. The University of Kentucky’s Black male enrollment (and Black female enrollment) in bachelors’ degree program has, however, been relatively stagnant since the 2008-2009 academic year. Total undergraduate enrollment at the University of Kentucky for the 2012-2013 academic year is 20,878 students.  Black students account for approximately 7.5% of the undergraduate student enrollment at the University. Black male undergraduate students account for just under 46% of the University’s total Black undergraduate enrollment. Hispanic or Latino students comprise about 2.7% of the University’s enrollment, and Hispanic or Latino males account for just over 47% of the University’s total Hispanic or Latino student population.  But overall, African American and Hispanic or Latino male student enrollment at UK comes pretty close to mirroring the racial and ethnic profile of the state.

Outside of enrollment, however, the University of Kentucky faces many of the same challenges that USG institutions faced in 2002; namely, retention, achievement, and graduation rates for undergraduate male students of color, particularly Black male students. University of Kentucky Institutional Research data show clearly that achievement (GPA), retention, and graduation rates for Black male undergraduate students fall significantly behind those fore Black females, Hispanic or Latino students, White males, and White females. Even as much work remains to be done with improving the University graduation rate for all students, the graduation rate for Black male students at UK shamefully falls significantly below that of any other subgroup of students. The six-year graduation rate for the 2006 cohort of Hispanic or Latino first-year, first-time students at UK was 52.6%; for Black female students it was 54.7%; for Black male students it was 42.6%; for White female students it was 60.8%; and for White male students it was 55.5%. Strongly related to graduation rates, the first fall to fourth fall retention rates for Black male students are abysmal. For the 2009 cohort, the first fall to fourth fall retention rate for first-time, first-year Black male students was 45.6%; for Black female students it was 53.1%; for White male students it was 65.5%; and for White female students it was 70.1%. Also related, academic achievement for Black male students at UK falls significantly below the achievement of other subgroups of students. The first year UK GPA for Black male students for the 2011 cohort of first-year, first-time freshmen was 2.25; for Black female students it was 2.56; for White males it was 2.79; and for White female students it was 3.09. 

Further, many of the findings of USG’s study of Black male students hold true for Black male undergraduates at the University of Kentucky. Exploratory research conducted in 2009 by the University Office for Institutional Diversity indicated that Black male students at UK also experience feelings of isolation and alienation, and that the University campus can be a hostile place for them. Institutional research data and exploratory research findings make it pretty clear that if the University desires to improve the quality of experience for Black male undergraduate students and in-turn improve retention and graduation rates, intentional and strategic interventions must be put into place. The University of Kentucky has both the talent and resources to improve educational outcomes for its Black male students. It is my sincere hope that the University leadership make a decision to build and support an Initiative aimed at supporting the success of male students  of color.

 

Georgia’s African-American Male Initiative: One Model for Systems and Institutions that are Serious about Black Male Success

Recognizing serious challenges with the recruitment, pilule retention, sovaldi and graduation rates of African American male students on the campuses of the University System of Georgia (USG) in 2002, viagra the system launched its African-American Male Initiative (AAMI). System officials took note of the significant gender gap among African-American students in the system; African American women accounted for approximately 68% of the system’s total African American student population. In response to identified gaps, the USG raised questions about whether African-American males had been presented with opportunities for higher education, whether they faced gender-specific challenges at certain stages of the academic ladder, and what the specific barriers to their enrollment and retention were on the individual USG campuses.

The system’s study of those questions revealed that: (a) African American males students  felt isolated and alienated on their campuses; (b)  most schools had failed to engage African American males students, both inside and outside of classrooms; and (c) African-American male students longed for the ability to talk to faculty, staff, and peers on their campuses that could related to their racial and gender experiences. Based on those findings the USG invested in pilot programs targeting African American male students at the middle school, high school, and higher education levels across the state. The goal of USG’s AAMI has been explicitly to “increase the recruitment, retention, and graduation of African-American males within the University System through strategic interventions.” The program focuses on removing obstacles to students’ success and providing resources to help students be successful. As a result of the system’s initiative and early success, it successfully attracted funding support form the Lumina Foundation in 2006 and again in 2009. Lumina funding enabled the Initiative to refine its strategies and focus more specifically on undergraduate student success.

One partnership that has been central to USG’s efforts has been with the Student African American Brotherhood (SAAB). SAAB’s goal is for “all Black males on educational campuses to take full advantage of their academic years and to better understand and practice their full responsibilities, rights, and privileges as citizens” of the U.S. The organization was founded and established in 1991 on the campus of Georgia Southwestern State University by Dr. Tyrone Bledsoe, a Mississippi native and doctoral graduate of the University of Georgia. USG used some of its Lumina funding to establish SAAB chapters on eight USG campuses.

By 2011, there were 37 programs focusing on African American male success in the USG system. Those programs have resulted in significant increases in the enrollment, retention, and graduation rates of African-American male students on those campuses; from 2002 to 2011, African-American male system enrollment rose by nearly 68%, six-year graduation rate for first-time freshmen rose by 10% (28.95% to 38.98%), and the number of bachelors degrees conferred annually rose by nearly 50% (1,294 degrees in 2003 to 1,938 degrees in 2010). While significant work remains to be done, the USG AAMI is a national model for higher education systems and institutions that want to do more than just talk about improving enrollment, retention, and graduation rates of African American male students.